A Humanitarian and Compassionate application (H&C) is a type of in-Canada application for permanent residence. It is intended for persons who cannot return to their home country to apply for immigration through the standard categories because to do so would cause them unusual, undeserved or disproportionate hardship.

Examples of common fact situations where H&C applications may be made include in-land family sponsorships where a spouse, child, or parent of a Canadian is in Canada and does not wish to return to their home country for some compelling reason; or applications by persons who have lived in Canada for years without legal status and who would face a hardship if they were required to leave Canada.

Thus, H&C applications are a flexible and useful type of application for persons who might not qualify under the regular categories of the immigration and refugee system. In some cases an applicant under this category will be required to attend an interview before an Immigration Officer to decide their case.